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TBGI Citations

Literature advancing, applying or citing the TBGI research agenda or analytical framework

A growing number of researchers in numerous disciplines and fields are engaging with–or at least referring to–the TBGI analytical framework and research agenda to advance research into interactive dimensions of transnational governance, including:

Business ethics:

  • José Carlos Marques, Private Regulatory Fragmentation as Public Policy: Governing Canada’s Mining Industry (2016) Journal of Business Ethics 135: 617-630;
  • Helen Etchanchu, Old Wine in New Bottles? Parentalism, Power, and Its Legitimacy in Business-Society Relations (2018) Journal of Business Ethics: 1-19;
  • Jean-Christophe Graz, Nicole Helmerich, and Cecile Prebandier, Hybrid Production Regimes and Labor Agency in Transnational Private Governance (2019) Journal of Business Ethics: 1-15.

Conservation biology:

  • Jeffrey C Milder et al, An agenda for assessing and improving conservation impacts of sustainability standards in tropical agriculture (2014) Conservation Biology 29:2 309-320;
  • Helena Nery Alves-Pinto, Peter Newton and Luis Fernando Guedes Pinto, Reducing deforestation and enhancing sustainability in commodity supply chains: interactions between governance interventions and cattle certification in Brazil (2015) Tropical Conservation Science 8(4): 1053-1079.

Environmental and natural resource studies:

  • Paul Foley and Elizabeth Havice, The rise of territorial eco-certifications: New politics of transnational sustainability governance in the fishery sector (2016) Geoforum 69: 24-33;
  • Neil Craik et al, Indigenous-Corporate Private Governance and Legitimacy: Lessons Learned from Impact and Benefit Agreements (2017) Resources Policy 52: 379-388;
  • Markos Karavias, Interactions between International Law and Private Fisheries Certification (2018), Transnational Environmental Law 7(1): 165-184;
  • Sophia Carodenuto, Governance of Zero Deforestation Cocoa in West Africa: New Forms of Public-Private Interaction (2019) Environmental Policy and Governance 29(1): 55-66.


  • Ines Gavrilut, Aureliu-Florin Halalisan, Alexandru Giurca and Metodi Sotirov. 2016. The Interaction between FSC Certification and the Implementation of the EU Timber Regulation in Romania. Forests 7(1), Article 3, DOI 10.3390/f7010003.

Industrial relations and labour governance:

  • Amengual, Matthew and Chirot, Laura, Reinforcing the State: Transnational and State Labor Regulation in Indonesia (March 4, 2016). Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Forthcoming; Available at SSRN:;
  • Kevin Kolben. 2015. Dialogic Labor Regulation in the Global Supply Chain. Michigan Journal of International Law 36: 425-465.

International relations:

  • Kenneth W Abbott, Jessica F Green and Robert O Keohane, Organizational Ecology and Institutional Change in Global Governance (2016) International Organization 70(2): 247-277;
  • Anja P. Jakobi, Non-state Actors and Global Crime Governance: Explaining the Variance of Public-private Interaction (2016) British Journal of Politics and International Relations 18(1): 72-89.

International law:

  • Yoshiko Naiki, Trade and Bioenergy: Explaining and Assessing the Regime Complex for Sustainable Bioenergy (2016) Eur J Int Law 27 (1): 129-159.
  • Radu Mares, Securing Human Rights through Risk-Management Methods: Breakthrough or Misalignment? (2019) Leiden Journal of International Law: 1-19.

Law and society:

  • Bronwen Morgan, Upside Down and Inside Out: Regulators and Regulatory Processes in Contemporary Perspective, in Austin Sarat and Patricia Ewick eds The Handbook of Law and Society (Wiley 2015) 150, 157-158.

Policy studies:

  • Graeme Auld and Lars H Gulbrandsen, Diversifying Nature Protection: Evaluating the Changing Tools for Forest Protection in Canada and Norway (2015) Review of Policy Research 32(6): 699-722;
  • Stephan Manning and Juliane Reinecke, A Modular Governance Architecture in the Making: How transnational standard-setters govern sustainability transitions (2016) Research Policy 45: 618-633;
  • Neil Gunningham, Review Essay: Divestment, Nonstate Governance, and Climate Change (2017) Law and Policy 39(4): 309-324.

Regulatory governance:

  • Alessandra Arcuri, The Transformation of organic regulation: The ambiguous effects of publicization (2015) Regulation & Governance 9: 144-159;
  • Luc Fransen, Thomas Conzelmann, Fragmented or cohesive transnational private regulation of sustainability standards? A comparative study (2015) Regulation & Governance 9: 259-275;
  • Michael W Toffel, Jodi L Short and Melissa Ouellet, Codes in context: How states, markets, and civil society shape adherence to global labor standards (2015) Regulation & Governance 9: 205-223;
  • Oren Perez et al, Governance through Global Networks and Corporate Signaling (2018) Regulation & Governance: 1-23;
  • Phillip Paiement, Jurisgenerative Role of Auditors in Transnational Labor Governance (2019), Regulation & Governance 13(2): 280-298.


  • David D’Hollander and Axel Marx, “Strengthening private certification systems through public regulation: The case of sustainable public procurement” (2014) Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal 5:1, 2-21;
  • Clara A Brandi, “Sustainability Standards and Sustainable Development—Synergies and Trade-Offs of Transnational Governance” (2016) Sustainable Development, forthcoming DOI: 10.1002/sd.1639.

Transnational politics:

  • Luc Fransen, Jelmer Schalk and Graeme Auld, Work ties beget community? Assessing interactions among transnational private governance organizations in sustainable agriculture (2016) Global Networks 16: 45-67;
  • Gregory Shaffer, Theorizing Transnational Legal Ordering (2016), Annual Review of Law and Social Science 12: 231-253.